28 October 2013

Learning and Memory

What is Learning?
It is an acquisition process, in other words, a process that changes our neural connections and behavior. It happens when something new such as information is introduced into our brain. 

  What things can we learn?
     1) BEHAVIOR: new skills such as driving, playing the piano, etc.
     2) INFORMATION:  the information of this post for example
     3) ABILITIES: wine testing
     4) ATTITUDES: your religious believes, racial attitude, etc.

Shaver (1977) defined attitudes as "An organized predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner toward a specified class of objects".

What is Memory?
It is the ability to store and it is also a process. It always occurs in an active manner.
Memory as a process has three phases:

1) ENCODING: the initial process by which information received is turned into memory. It is automatic or effortful (you need to make an effort in order to retain it). 

2) STORAGE: occurs when the encoded information in the first phase is "inactive" in the Long Term Memory (LTM)

3) CONSOLIDATION: it is a neurobiological process in which the information stored is retained without interference of other information. The more consolidation, the less interference.

4) RETRIEVAL: the process by which memories are activated or called into consciousness.

Learning and Memory refer to a set of processes and capacities by which the brain incorporates and stores new information about the environment so that it can be applied in the future.


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